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On Viewability

Viewability is one of the metrics that matters when it comes to display advertising. In XPO, we support viewability.

  • you can provide your viewability tag (e.g. from MOAT) and it can be embedded into the ad creative
  • if you are unsure if the partner you are using is supported in XPO, connect us with your partner and we can integrate with their system to embed their tag.

On Discrepancy

In a campaign execution, typically there might be multiple parties involved and where each uses its ad servers or trackers to track and deploy their respective campaigns.  Due to a range of factors (see the factors below), there is always a discrepancy in the resulting reports.  A difference of 5-20% is considered standard and normal in the industry, though again the difference might still differ significantly for various reasons (see article on this ref). However, whenever discrepancy exceeds 20%, it is necessary to look into what caused the difference.  

Contributing Factors to Discrepancy

Each ad impression, click etc. can be tracked in myriad possible ways by different parties and hence are affected by a range of different factors. These are some of the factors that we are aware of that could affect the tracking and reporting as a result.

  • Ad blockers
  • Http and Https (or SSL vs Non-SSL)
  • Fraudulent traffic
  • Differences in measuring and implementation between different systems
  • Layers of systems or "daisy chain" of multiple systems (ref)
  • Multiple layers of trackers
  • Network latency
  • Websites technologies and
    • AJAX/dynamic sites
    • One-pagers
  • Traffic
    • Non-human traffic - bots, crawlers and spiders
    • Fraudulent traffic
      • pageview inflation
    • IP restriction
  • Reporting timeframe/timezone

Counting Impression and Clicks

Please refer here Counting Impressions and Clicks to understand how Knorex counts clicks and impressions.


  1. Why are there differences in measurement when using a Site Analytic software compared with when using an Ad Server in measuring impressions ?
    1. This article provides a good explanation

  2. Why are the numbers between XPO reporting different or not matching with the numbers from other reports / systems ? Why is there such discrepancy ?
    1. There are multiple reasons for this. Such discrepancies could be due to XPO and your other tracking partner are measuring different things e.g. when XPO delivers click number, we apply our own proprietary methods of de-duplication and fraud screening. We follow all industry best practices in the design, operation, and both internal and external monitoring of the click redirect handlers. This discrepancy would also occur between systems e.g. Google DFP vs Google DCM and Google Analytics vs DFP. Also, the placements of the trackers would also make a difference. See the above Contributing Factors to Discrepancy.

  3. Why are there discrepancy between Google Analytics and XPO ? 
    1. Google Analytics (GA) is a tool meant for measuring website traffic. It is not meant for counting ads impressions. In the case of measuring "clicks" and "visitors", GA counts “visitors” whereas XPO counts “clicks”. Google counts “visits” using a proprietary algorithm with a 30 minute sliding window. The GA numbers are de-duplicated by IP address over a 30 minute sliding window (repeat clicks in the window are counted once). XPO clicks are counted as they occur, with a 1 second de-duplication window.
      See the same comments from many other vendors


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